Research Highlights

School of Infrastructure

Development of an Integrated Zero Energy Modular System for the Treatment of Rural Domestic Wastewater: Emphasis on Nutrient Removal

In this research project, newly designed natural laminar flow aerofoils are optimized for higher lift to drag ratio which have possible applications in the transport aircrafts. Aerodynamic characteristics of the newly developed aerofoils are obtained using CFD simulations using high accuracy numerical schemes.

The process flow of a single representative integrated system (b) the schematic diagram of the designed experimental set-up with all the dimensional details.

Description

In a developing country like India, providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment facilities in rural areas are a huge challenge. With the aim of enhancing the nutrient removal from rural domestic wastewater while reducing the cost of the treatment process, a novel, integrated treatment system consisting of a multistage bio-filter with drop aeration and a post positioned attached growth carbonaceous denitrifying-bioreactor was designed and developed in this work. The bio-filter was packed with 'dolochar', a sponge iron industry waste, as an adsorbent mainly for phosphate removal through physiochemical approach. The Denitrifying bio-reactor was packed with many waste organic solid substances (WOSS) as carbon sources and substrates for biomass attachment, mainly to remove nitrate in the biological denitrification process. The performance of the modular system, treating real domestic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 60 days and the average removal efficiencies during the period were as follows: phosphate, 99.48%; nitrate, 92.44%, ammonia, 96.64%, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.153, 5.5, and 1.06 mg/L, respectively. The multistage bio-filter played an important role in ammonium oxidation and phosphate adsorption. The multilevel drop aeration with increasing oxygenation, and the special media used, consisting of certain oxides were likely beneficial for nitrification and phosphorus removal, respectively, whereas the nitrate was effectively reduced by biological denitrification in the carbonaceous bioreactor. This treatment system would allow multipurpose reuse of the final effluent. Moreover, the saturated dolochar can be used as nutrient suppliers in agricultural practices and the partially degraded carbonaceous substances can be subjected to composting, and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer. Thus, the system displays immense potential for treating domestic wastewater significantly decreasing the concentrations of nutrients and most importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:

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Dr. R. R. Dash

Assistant Professor
School of Infrastructure
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Dr. P. Bhunia

Assistant Professor
School of Infrastructure

Research Domain:

Environmental Biotechnology

Related Link to published work:

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2016/RA/C6RA08519A

Macrophyte assisted vermifilter (MAVF) to treat wastewater

Description

Macrophyte assisted vermifilter (MAVF) is a bio-oxidative process in which detritivore earthworms interact symbiotically with microorganisms and other soil fauna to degrade organic contaminants present in wastewater. Microbes perform biochemical degradation of wastewater solids, while earthworms degrade and homogenize the material through muscular actions of their foregut. Earthworms can exert an influence on soil microorganisms directly or indirectly via comminution, burrowing, casting, grazing and dispersal process. Presence of macrophyte in vermifilter, enhance physical filtration process and organic solids present in wastewater filtered and trapped in the bed for a long time, thereby allowing for better biodegradation of solids. Plant roots distribute effectively on bed and provides natural habitat, which encourages the development of a great diversity of microbial communities. Nutrients in wastewater uptake by the roots and oxygen leakage from root tips create a 1-4 mm oxidation film surrounding the roots, which enhance the aerobic degradation process. Pathogens present in wastewater reduced due to the action of intestinal enzymes (protease, lipase, amylase, cellulase) secreted in the earthworm's body wall and coelomic fluids released from their body cavity (coelom). Root exudates released from the plant also have antimicrobial activity which kills pathogen present in wastewater. Overall, this system requires no skill persons to operate, which is economically affordable and environmentally sustainable.

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:

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Dr. R. R. Dash

Assistant Professor
School of Infrastructure
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Dr. P. Bhunia

Assistant Professor
School of Infrastructure

Research Domain:

Wastewater treatment

Impact of Climate Change on Design of Offshore Wind Turbine

Description

India is planned to develop offshore wind energy in coastal areas. This would include exploiting India's 7,500 km-long coastline for the production of low-carbon energy from offshore wind power. Global warming is expected to change the wind and wave patterns at a significant level, which may lead to condition outside current design criteria of monopile supported offshore wind turbine (OWT). This study examines the impact of climate change on the dynamic behavior and future safety of offshore wind turbine. The time series of future wind speed and wave height at local level is generated using a statistical downscaling model. Wind speed, wave height and wave period data are collected from the buoy deployed by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services and the future climate for the next 30 year is simulated considering various greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The changes in design at offshore location along the west coast of India is examined considering serviceability and fatigue limit state criteria. This study shows that changes in design of OWT are required due to increased responses owing to the effect of climate change. Fatigue life is found to be decreased because of climate change. These aspects are important for designing of offshore wind turbine.

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:

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Dr. S. Haldar

Associate Professor
School of Infrastructure

Research Domain: Offshore wind energy, Sustainability

Related Link to published work:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1064119X.2016.1257671
 
School of Electrical Sciences

Configuration Compliance checking, Security Policy verification and Threat Diagnosis for ECN

NetAssure Architecture

Description
In enterprise networks (ECN), the correct implementations of security policies are becoming increasingly difficult due to complex and heterogeneous organizational requirements involving a large number of computing and cyber devices. These policies may span from resource health and configuration management to dynamic access control and protection against emerging vulnerabilities and related attacks. The complexity of the problem is compounded due to dynamic change in configurations and network topologies, inter-dependencies between device level configurations, and distributed nature of implementing policies in the networks. In addition, dependencies between network services may introduce hidden access channels which in turn may expose the organizational resources to the attackers. Recent studies show that 60-80% of security vulnerabilities are due to network policy misconfigurations. The manual analysis and enforcement of the security policies can be overwhelming and potentially inaccurate due to high potential of human errors. Therefore, there is significant need of developing tools for formally assessing the compliance between the distributed security implementation and the organizational policies. 
The main objective of this project is to develop an automated compliance checking, security verification and diagnosis tool for Enterprise Computing and Network Infrastructure (called NetAssure) to identify various functional violations and security threats. The tool provides the following security analytic capabilities:

  1. Asset_Checker: compliance checking of the enterprise resources (hardware and software) based on device level system parameters, drivers, application software and OS versions; related vulnerabilties, risks and patches as specified under enterprise policies/requirements. The key enabler for this module is formal ontology extraction supported verification.
  2. Config_verifier: verification of the device level configurations and the distributed network access control implementations with respect to the organizational policies, various security standards and known attack scenarios. Predicate logic based constraint solver is used for modeling and verification engine. It also generates remediation plans based on the verification traces.
  3. Auth_diagoniser: diagnosis of conflicts between heterogeneous role-based authorization and resource access policies and its implementations. This will also cover detection of password violations and generation of run time alerts.
  4. Network Isolation Enabler: automatic enforcement of separation between network devices or group of network devices (zones) driven by device functionality, exposure (to/from internet), potential vulnerabilities (running software) of the connected hosts and heterogeneous access policies. Configuration based ontology extraction and analysis will be used for enforcement of network isolation.
  5. Disposal Manger: automatic checking of the methodology and devices used for disposal of data and resources.

Collaborator: SAG, DRDO, New Delhi
Research/Experimental Platform:
- XML based Formal Policy Specification Language
- Yices SMT Logic based Verification Engine
- Epic small scale live Network for validation

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:
Prof. Ehab Al-Shaer, Prof. Sajal Das, Prof. Patrick McDaniel, Dr. Mathew Ceiser, Dr. Mohammed Ashiqur Rahaman, Elisa Bertino, Dr. Manoranjan Satpathy, Dr. Padmalochan Bera

Research Domain: Network Security, Formal Verification.

Related Link to published work:   http://dblp.uni-trier.de/pers/hd/b/Bera:Padmalochan

Homomorphic Encryption for Secure Data Storage in Cloud

Proposed cryptosystem for Homomorphic encryption

Description
Due to the digitization of data in large scale and varying requirements of the organizations to serve different stakeholders, there is a need to compute, store and analyze large amount of data often in remote servers efficiently. Cloud computing provides a platform to compute, store and share data remotely for heterogeneous entities and provides services to them according to their demand. One of the major challenges in cloud computing platform is to ensure security and privacy of the data. The major limitation of applying existing cryptosystem such as AES, 3-DES, etc. is the need of decryption of ciphertext for outsourced computations that may violate data security. Homomorphic encryption is a solution which allows performing computations directly on cipher text without decrypting of the ciphertext. In this work, we develop efficient model to implement different algorithms related to benchmark computations on ciphertext. In addition, we work on parallel implementation of these algorithms. We also design cryptosystems with function level encryption, integration of Role Based Access Control (RBAC) with parallel Homomorphic encryption, and attribute based encryption to harden the security perimeter over remotely stored data.

Research/Experimental Platform:
- Multi-threaded Implementation platform for Homomorphic Cryptosystem
- Interface for Role based Access Control Integration with Homomorphic Cryptosystem
- Map -Reduce Framework for Distributed Implementation of cryptosystem
Core Faculty with research focus in this area:
Prof. Debdeep Mukhopadhya, C. Pandu Rangan, Dr. Bimal Roy, Prof. Sajal Das, Prof. Indranil Sengupta, Dr. Padmalochan Bera

Research Domain: Cryptography, Cloud Security

Design of Adaptive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks


Framework for Designing Adaptive Trust Model and Routing Protocol


Implementation Module for the Adaptive Trust Model and Routing Protocol

 

Description
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has become popular as a key communication technology in many tactical and critical environments, such as military defence networks, disastrous and rescue operations, etc. The recent research on MANET focuses on developing security enforcement mechanisms integrated with routing protocols based on various trust models. In our work, we presented the limitations of the existing trust models in MANET on their applicability with varying contextual requirements and resource constraints with a simulation based comparative study with respect to their performance, and security enforcing features. With this comparative study, an adaptive multi-level trust model and routing protocol for MANET is proposed that supports heterogeneous applications with varying requirements and contexts. Our future work focuses on implementation of the proposed routing protocol for MANET in Software Defined Networking (SDN) platform to integrate and serve heterogeneous applications on a single SDN backbone network.

Research/Experimental Platform:

1. NS3 based Network Protocol Simulation Platform
2. Yices SMT logic based verification engine for protocol verification
3. Texas Instrument Emulation kits for custom protocol design and testing.

Collaborator: Anurag Lab, DRDO, Hyderabad.

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:

Prof. Soumya Kanti Ghosh, Prof. Sudip Misra, Prof. Sajal K Das, Dr. Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman, Dr. Ehab Al-Shaer, Prof. Sukumar Nandi, Dr. Padmalochan Bera

Research Domain:  Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Adaptive Routing, and Network Security
Related Link to published work: http://dblp2.unitrier.de/pers/hd/t/Tripathy:Bata_Krishna

Design and Performance Analysis of SDN Controllers


Throughput Comparison of NOX, POX, Beacon Controller


Latency Comparison of NOX, POX Controller

 


Proposed Architecture for SDN Control Platform

Description
Software Defined Network (SDN) provides a platformto the users and network administrators to efficiently design,build, and manage networks by separating the control plane and data plane. SDN allows to program the control plane and configure the underlying infrastructure based on the applications, network services on demand. However, it introduces degradation of scalability and performance for real time traffic. ThUS, it is important to analyse the limitations and performance of SDN controllers for implementation and deployment in live network environments with applications. This work focuses on performance analysis of SDN controllers supported by simulations. We evaluate number of network virtualization technologies, models and tools to assess the performance of SDN controllers. This study aimed at designing architectural blueprint and control algorithms for efficient SDN controllers with network function virtualization using in-house tools.

Core Faculty with research focus in this area:
Prof. Ehab Al-Shaer, Prof. Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman, Dr. Padmalochan Bera, Dr. David Erickson, Dr. Seungwon Shin, Dr.Wenfeng Xia
 

Research Domain: Software Defined Network (SDN)